The Victorian Era and the British Empire

What Happened During the Victorian period?

The Victorian period was the period of time of Queen Victoria’s reign, from 20 June, 1837 right up until her loss of life on 22 January 1901.

The period adopted the Georgian period (1714 to 1837, named immediately after the Hanoverian Kings George I, George II, George III and George IV) and was characterized by a course-based mostly modern society which incorporated the upper, middle and lower course.

It was a period of time of previous-fashioned beliefs, renowned for its corsets, bonnets, top rated hats, bustles and petticoats and the entrepreneurial spirit of the self-manufactured male.

Charles Dickens grew to become well-known as the biggest novelist of the Victorian period and Florence Nightingale (1820-1910), a British nurse, identified as “The Lady With the Lamp,” whose activities through the Crimean War set the foundation of modern-day nursing.

Coronation of Queen Victoria

Queen Victoria’s father died when she was just 8 months aged, and her three uncles also died, putting her in line as heir to the throne when she was 18-many years-old.

Her coronation took area on Thursday, 28 June 1838, just about a 12 months soon after she succeeded to the throne with Lord Melbourne, her to start with Prime Minister, who skilled her in the art of politics.

Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, her initially cousin, became the consort of Queen Victoria from their relationship on 10 February 1840 right until his dying in 1861.

Their kids married into royal and noble households, earning Victoria the nickname, “the grandmother of Europe” and spreading haemophilia in European royalty.

Prince Albert died from typhoid fever on 14 December 1861 at Windsor Castle with Queen Victoria and five of his children at his bedside.

The Belle Époque (1871 – 1914)

The Belle Époque (La Belle Époque, “Attractive Epoch”) amongst the finish of the Franco-Prussian War in 1871 to the outbreak of World War I in 1914 saw French artistic arts flourish, with many masterpieces of literature, tunes, theater, and visual artwork thrived.

In Britain and the rest of Europe, it was characterized by optimism, regional peace, financial prosperity, colonial expansion, and technological, scientific, and cultural innovations.

Industrial Revolution

The remarkable forces of adjust unleashed by the Industrial Revolution built the British Empire the to start with world wide industrial energy, developing a lot of the world’s coal, iron, steel and textiles throughout the Victorian period.

The initially Industrial Revolution (1760 – 1840) in Excellent Britain noticed the demise of rural lifetime as metropolitan areas swiftly expanded and the factory system grew to become founded, centered on textile production.

A few of the most influential innovations of this period have been the coke fueled furnace, steam motor, and spinning jenny which greater manufacturing abilities.

The Next Industrial Revolution (1850 – 1914) centered on the production of price-efficient steel, railroad expansion, advances in electrical energy, improved interaction, petroleum and the automobile.

Alexander Graham Bell (March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922) a Scottish-born inventor, scientist, and engineer invented and patented the phone in 1876 while Samuel Finley Breese Morse (April 27, 1791 – April 2, 1872), an American inventor and painter, invented the electric telegraph (1832-35) and then codeveloped the Morse Code (1838).

Baby Labor During the Victorian Period.

Youngster labor throughout the Industrial Revolution turned notorious for the conditions below which young children were used, depriving them of their childhood, their skill to go to college, and was mentally, physically, socially and morally harmful.

Youngsters produced up much more than 25 p.c of the British workforce in mines, factories, and workshops.

Numerous begun function as younger as 4 or 5 a long time aged doing work extended hrs in unsafe working circumstances.

In coal mines, children would crawl via tunnels also slim and reduced for adults and there were young boys functioning as chimney sweeps in rich properties to take away soot.

The well known creator, Charles Dickens, labored at the age of 12 in a blacking manufacturing unit, with his relatives in debtor’s jail.

Lord Shaftesbury

Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury (28 April 1801 – 1 October 1885) was a British politician, philanthropist and social reformer who turned acknowledged as the “Poor Man’s Earl” because of to his advocacy for the better treatment method of the doing work classes.

He was also president of the Ragged College Union, which promoted the education for society’s most destitute youngsters.

Lord Shaftesbury considered schooling was a way of releasing kids from poverty.

Manufacturing unit Acts he supported ensured enhanced situations for kids and women which integrated:

*the utmost performing day to be 12 hours.

*children underneath the age of 9 to be banned from get the job done.

*young children age 9 to 13 to be restricted to a 48-hour operating 7 days, with attendance at university component-time.

British Empire

At just 4ft-11in tall, Victoria was a towering image of the British Empire.

Her reign paved the way for a present day and prosperous Great Britain.

From the mid-18th-century, the Royal Navy was the world’s most strong and played a vital section in establishing the British Empire.

Victories around Napoleonic France enhanced Britain’s affect abroad when Lord Nelson’s fleet defeated the French and Spanish at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805 and the Duke of Wellington defeated Napoleon Bonaparte at Waterloo in Belgium in 1815.

Queen Victoria turned the Empress of India on the guidance of her seventh prime minister Benjamin Disraeli.

She permitted of his imperialist policies which led to the Scramble for Africa in the 1880s and 1890s with the other Great European Powers.

Britain grew to become the most highly effective country in the earth with 1-fourth of the world wide inhabitants owing allegiance to the queen.

William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809 – 19 May possibly 1898) was a Liberal politician who served for 12 a long time as Primary Minister of Fantastic Britain spread about 4 phrases starting in 1868 and ending in 1894.

His political doctrine known as Gladstonian liberalism was to lower privilege and to open up proven establishments to all such as the universities and the army.

Political Events All through the Victorian Period

The two primary political get-togethers throughout the Victorian era had been the Whigs/Liberals and the Conservatives.

The Whigs were a main British political team of the late 17th through early 19th-generations who required restricted royal authority and enhanced parliamentary energy.

The Labour Bash was founded in 1900, having grown out of the trade union motion and socialist events of the 19th century who overtook the Liberal Celebration, to develop into the most important opposition to the Conservative Social gathering in the early 1920s.

Notable statesmen during the Victorian period have been Lord Melbourne, Sir Robert Peel, Lord Derby, Lord Palmerston, Benjamin Disraeli, William Gladstone, and Lord Salisbury.

Lord Melbourne (a Whig) who was the British prime minister from July 16 to November 14, 1834, and from April 18, 1835, to August 30, 1841 was Queen Victoria’s near buddy and main political adviser during the early many years of her reign (from June 20, 1837).

Crimean War

The Crimean War (1853-6) was a significant European military services conflict of the 19th-century which noticed an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia towards Tsarist Russia.

The speedy cause concerned disputes in excess of Orthodox holy spots in Jerusalem and the legal rights of Orthodox, Christian minorities in the Holy Land, which were underneath occupation by the Ottoman Empire.

The French Emperor Napoleon III (a Catholic) refused.

Having received promises of support from France and Britain, the Turkish, Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia in Oct 1853.

Demand of the Mild Brigade

The Demand of the Light Brigade which took area for the duration of the Struggle of Balaklava, on Oct 25, 1854 of the Crimean War were being the British light cavalry drive with rapidly horses and soldiers armed with lances and sabers.

By misinterpreted orders, the Light Brigade of 670 horsemen began a headlong charge versus the seriously defended Russian troops.

The legend was designed well-known by Alfred, Lord Tennyson in his 1855 poem to honor their bravery and sacrifice: “Honor the demand they created! Honor the Gentle Brigade, Noble six hundred!”

Florence Nightingale

Florence Nightingale, (1820 – 1910) was a British nurse and the founder of modern nursing.

She grew to become well known for her nursing do the job all through the Crimean War (1854 – 56) and an icon of the Victorian period as “The Woman with the Lamp” who designed her nightly rounds of wounded and dying soldiers.